Kingdom of Bosnia was founded upon banate (duchy) of Bosnia. Banate of Bosnia was legitimate province of Hungarian Crowned Lands. Well, at least it became after the invasion of  Bella II of Hungary in 1136. This was the first Hungarian invasion of Bosnia.
 
Banate of Bosnia was made out of the current territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1377 Banate was elevated to the Kingdom of Bosnia with the coronation of Tvrtko I. Until then Tvrtko I had the role as Ban (Duke) of Bosnia.
 

Tvrtko I Kotromanic - 1st Bosnian King

Tvrtko I of the house Kotromanic came to power in 1353 as Duke of Bosnia. During his rule as a Duke, he would be establishing diplomatic relations with Serbia. Pledging alliance with Prince Lazar Hrebljanovic. Ruler of the territory of disintegrated Serbian Empire. Alongside with Lazar, Tvrtko will conquer many territories among Balkans.
 
As Tvrtko I claimed the territory of Djurad I Balsa, also known as Lord of Zeta (today’s territory of Montenegro). Most of the seaside was under Djurads control. This last conquest will lead him to become the king of Bosnia on 26. October 1377. After the coronation, his title was “Stephen, King of Serbs, Bosnia, and Seaside”. His coronation occurred in Mile near Visoko.
 

All Bosnian kings added the honorific Stephen to their baptismal name upon accession. 

Most important centers of kingdom were Jajce as capital, Visoko and Bobovac. 

By 1390, Tvrtko I expanded the borders of his kingdom and was able to include Croatia and Dalmatia.
Medieval Bosnian State Expansion
Expansion of Bosnian state through time
Unfortunately, that wasn’t the only thing Tvrtko I expanded. He was also expanding his title as well. And from now on (the moment he seized Croatia and Dalmatia) Tvrtko I became “King of Serbs, Bosnia, Dalmatia, Croatia, and Seaside“. At the peak of Tvrtko I’s power he would be named as “King of Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Hum, Usora, Soli, Dalmatia, Donji kraji“.
 
The Bosnian Kingdom had 9 rulers. Tvrtko I was the most prominent one as he was able to elevate the kingdom of Bosnia. Power of Bosnian Kingdom was at it’s peak during his rule.
 
Rulers that came after Tvrtko I were struggling to remain the same level of power. Bosnian Kingdoms influence was weakening and decaying over the course of time. 
 

Fall of Bosnian Kingdom

As the Ottoman conquest of Europe started in late 14th century, they would be taking over all of the Balkan territories, eventually reaching Basnian state. That occurred during the rule of Stephen Thomas and Catherine of Bosnia. King Thomas passed away in 1461 leaving queen Catherine as 37 year old widow with two minor children.  

Successor to the throne was Stephen Tomasevic, her stepson. During the king Thomas’s lifetime their relationship wasn’t so good which influenced mostly their relation after Thomas’s death. However this weakened the strength and the influence of the kingdom in the most critical time. While the Ottoman conquest was arriving to the balkan

In this period King Stephen Tomasevic lost all of his allies as they betrayed him and left him to defend from the Ottomans by himself. Bosnia fell under the rule of the Ottomans in 1463 and became westernmost province of Ottoman Empire. Province of Herzegovina was able to prolong their fall until the  1482. After the fall of the Kingdom Catherine of Bosnia escaped to city of Dubrovnik. Her final destination was Rome which she would be reaching in 1467

During her time in Rome there were several attempts to revive the kingdom of Bosnia. She governed with kings in region but none of them saw the benefit in opposing mighty Ottoman Empire.

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